kandi Lo
Katie Lee

Advertising: paid, non-personal communication through various media about a business firm, not-for profit organization, product, or idea by a sponsor identified in a message that is intended to inform or persuade members of a particular audience.
- Two broad categories of advertising:
o Product advertising
o Institutional advertising
Product advertising: non-personal selling of a particular good or service
Institutional advertising: promotes a concept, an idea, a philosophy, or goodwill of a industry, company, or government agency
- Objective of Advertising: to inform, to persuade, and to remind
o Informative advertising (to inform)
o Persuasive advertising (to persuade)
o Reminder advertising (to remind)
Informative advertising: develop initial demand for a good, service, organization, or cause.
Persuasive advertising: increase demand for an existing good, service, organization
Reminder advertising: reinforce previous promotional activity by keeping the name of good, service, person, or cause before the public.

Advertising Strategy
- Types of advertising strategies:
o Comparative advertising
o Celebrity testimonials
o Retail advertising
o Cooperative advertising
o Interactive advertising
Comparative Advertising: advertising strategy that emphasizes messages with direct or indirect promotional comparison between competing brands.
Retail Advertising: all advertising by retail stores that sell goods or services directly to the consuming public.
Cooperative advertising: strategy in which a retailer shares advertising costs with a manufacturer or wholesaler.
Interactive advertising: two-way promotional messages transmitted through communication channels that induce message recipients to participate actively in the promotional effort.

Creating an Advertisement & Advertising Messages
Advertising campaign: series of different but related ads that use a single theme and appear in different media within a specified time period.
- Advertising appeals
o Fear appeals
o Humor in advertising messages
o Ads based on sex
- Developing and preparing ads
o Should gain attention and interest
o Should inform and/or persuade
o Should eventually lead to a purchase or other desired action
- Four major elements in an ad
o Headline and illustrations (photograph, drawings, or other artwork) generates interest and attention
o Body copy informs, persuades, and stimulates buying action
o Signature may include the company name, address, phone number, web address, slogan, trademark, or a product photo, names the sponsoring organization
Banners: advertisements on a web page that link to ad advertiser's site.

Media Selection
- Television
- Radio
- Newspapers
- Magazine
- Direct Mail
- Outdoor Advertising
- Interactive Media

Media Scheduling
Media scheduling: setting the timing and sequence for a series of advertisements.
- Important variables in media scheduling
o Seasonal sales patterns
o Repurchase cycles
o Reach
o Frequency
o Gross rating point (GRP = frequent X reach)

Organization of the Advertising Function
Advertising agency: firm whose marketing specialist assists advertisers in planning and preparing advertisements.

Public Relations
- Marketing and non-marketing public relations
- Publicity
Publicity: non-personal stimulation of demand for a good service, place, idea, person, or organization by unpaid placement of significant news regarding the product in a print of broadcast medium.
Non-marketing public relations: promotion that includes advertising, sales promotion, direct marketing, guerrilla marketing, and public relations –all conducted without being face to face with the buyer.
Marketing Public Relations (MPR): narrowly focused public relations activities that directly support marketing goals.

Cross Promotion
Cross promotion: promotional technique in which marketing partner share the cost of a promotional campaign that meets their mutual needs.

Measuring Promotional Effectiveness
Media research: advertising research that assesses how well a particular medium delivers an advertiser’s message, where and when to place the advertisement, and the size of the audience.
Message research: advertising research that tests consumer reactions to an advertisement’s creative message.
- Measuring advertising effectiveness
o Pretesting -blind product tests
o Post-testing -unaided recall tests, inquiry tests
Pretesting: Research that evaluates and ad during its development stage.
Post-testing: Research that assesses advertising effectiveness after it has appeared in a print or broadcast medium.
- Evaluating interactive media
o Hits (user requests for a file)
o Impressions (the number of times a viewer see the ad)
o Click-throughs (when the user clicks the ad to get more information)
o View-throughs

Ethics in Non-personal selling
Cookies: controversial techniques for collecting information about online website visitors in which small text files are automatically downloaded to a user’s computer to gather such data as length of visit and the site visited next.